Photogrammetry – Edith Kramer as Physical and Digital

Along with using my Edith Kramer sculpt to create a realistic waxwork model, I also experimented with photogrammetry and 3D printing. The majority of this project focused on historical, and more natural processes such as sculpting, waxwork and dressmaking, which is why I wanted to explore a more technical and modern process as well. Taking a 3D scan of Edith Kramer proved the perfect opportunity to explore this.


  1. Take turn-around photos of the sculpt. I ended up taking 167 images of Edith from three different perspectives.
  2. Use Agisoft to process the images at the highest quality.
  3. Clean-up in Agisoft and Zbrush.
  4. Into Preform 3D printing software.
  5. Use the resin printer.
  6. Clean up of print.

Even though I processed the photos at the highest quality in the Agisoft software, there were still many areas that needed fixing. There was a build-up of material at the top, and the bottom of the scan was full of holes. This might have been because the top and bottom of the sculpt in the photos were not as clearly photographed as the rest.

By importing the scan into Zbrush, Rhino and 3DS Max, I was able to experiment and find the best way of cleaning her up without reducing quality. Zbrush worked best for this – I used the Boolean feature to fill the holes at the bottom, and gradually smoothed the extra material on top away. I re-sculpted the same texture that I did on the physical sculpt on the smoothed parts.

The final 3D print came out at a good quality. It is interesting to view both models – the larger wax and smaller resin print – side by side. Their making processes present juxtaposed representations of the same sculpt and can stand as visual depictions of how materials carry intrinsic meaning – the rawness of the wax against the cold modernity of the resin. If the former is true, it suggests that each material’s unique meaning can be utilised by the artist to present their views, ideas and emotions. I believe this relates to the work Edith Kramer was a part of during her life.

Additionally, the size of the 3D print is also an interesting comparison and relates to my earlier notes on the work of Ron Mueck, who famously manipulated the scale of his models to instigate certain reactions from his viewers. The tiny scale of the 3D print carries connotations of a little toy or trinket and presents far less detail than the waxwork. Therefore, I believe it stands as a good portrayal of the conscious choice I made at the beginning of this project – the half-size scale of my waxwork, which I chose precisely for its diminutive size.